A Beginner’s Guide to the Multi-Step Income Statement


single step format

The adjusted trial balance is a listing of the company’s accounts and their balances after adjusting journal entries have been made. Other sources of information for the statement might include, for example, documentation that details the company’s core business activities so as to differentiate between operating and non-operating items. The four measures of income on the multi-step income statement include gross profit, operating income, pretax income, and post-tax income.

  • This gives you how much operating income your business can generate while managing fixed operating costs.
  • For example, they include several income and expense categories, they present net income as a separate line item, and they often include a reconciliation of net income to cash flow from operating activities.
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  • The selling expenses are the costs incurred when selling goods to consumers and may include marketing expenses, the salary of sales personnel, and freight charges.

Here are six of the reasons that limited liability companies have become a popular choice for small businesses. Creating operating agreements allows LLC owners to have more control over their businesses. The right financial statement to use will always depend on the decision you’re facing and the type of information you need in order to make that decision. We follow ethical journalism practices, which includes presenting unbiased information and citing reliable, attributed resources. Much of our research comes from leading organizations in the climate space, such as Project Drawdown and the International Energy Agency .

Example Multiple-Step Income Statement

The Income Statement provides interest expenses, which represent financing cost of the business. A Multi-Step by Sales Contribution is a Multi-Step Income Statement that groups transactions into categories based on the percent contribution to total sales for each category. Multi-Step Income Statements are useful for clarity and ease of reporting information at different levels. This is so governing agencies can have a clear window into what they are doing financially, in the name of public trust.

subtracting the cost

To understand a detailed multi step income statement for financial accounting, consider its formulas for income statement sections. The header of your multi-step income statement conveys important information to readers. It states the name of your company, it identifies the document as an income statement and it defines the reporting period covered by the document.

Single step vs. multi step income statement: Which one should I use?

Multi-level income statements are also often produced in compliance with some laws and regulations. This is a guide on how to leverage your income statement and gauge the success of your company. Plus prepare a multi step income statement for expense analysis. The single-step format is not heavily used, because it forces the readers of an income statement to separately summarize subsets of information within the income statement. For example, there is no gross margin calculation, nor any expense breakdowns by department.

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Investors, creditors, and other stakeholders of interest monitor the gross margin to analyze how efficient a company’s operations are. This gives more insight into how effectively the business is generating a profit from its main activities. Unlike a single-step format, multi-step formats don’t only focus on net income but offer an additional level of detail by calculating two more income-related figures. The important subtotals on the multiple-step income statement are convenient for the reader/user of the income statement. Next, we add other revenue and expense items to find income before taxes.

A multi-step income statement includes much of the information found in a single-step format, but it makes use of multiple equations to determine the profit, or net income, of a business. Multi-step income statements break down operating expenses and operating revenues versus non-operating expenses and revenues. This process separates expenses and revenues directly related to the business’s operations from those not directly related to its operations. A multi-step income statement is an income statement that segregates total revenue and expenses into operating and non-operating heads. It offers an in-depth analysis of the business’s financial performance in a specific reporting period.

More free online templates for businesses.

Multiple step – such statement separates results from different activities and provided different classes of expenses. In this statement we will have Sales Revenue, Cost of Goods Sold, Gross Profit, Selling & Administrative Expenses or Operating Expenses and other separately disclosed items. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. The Multi-Step Income Statement allows for more in-depth analysis compared to a Single-Step Income Statement. It is very popular because it not only shows gross profit but also product vs labor contribution margins and even net income.

The required information has been provided to us in the form of the adjusted trial balance. Looking over the company’s operations, we are made aware that lending, borrowing, and investing are not part of the company’s core operations. It provides a more detailed and comprehensive view of a company’s financial performance. Understand a multi-step income statement by comparing a single-step vs multi-step income statement. Learn how to prepare a multi-step income statement with examples.

Non-operating revenues and expenses are then added to or subtracted operating income in order to calculate income before taxes. Non-operating items are those revenues and expenses that do not pertain to the company’s normal operations such as dividend income, interest income and expense, and income tax expense. The selling and administrative expense sections are added together to compute the total operating expenses. This total expense line is subtracted from the gross profit computed in the first section to arrive at the company’s operating income. The format of the multi-step income statement contains Non-Operating Head as the third section. The non-operating and the other head list all kinds of business incomes and expenses unrelated to a business’s principal activities.

  • The final figure is the net income, which is calculated by subtracting all non-operating items from the operating income.
  • The non-operating and other section lists all business revenues and expenses that don’t relate to the business’ principle activities.
  • Gross profit is used by creditors to show the company’s ability to meet arising debt obligations and to pay back outstanding credit.
  • The final step for preparing your multi-step income statement is determining your net income.

A single-step income statement is generally used in the services industry. The two components explained above relate directly to the operations of the company. The third component of the non-operating head consists of all those revenue and expense items that do not contribute in any way to the core operations of a business.

Multi-Step Income Statements in Depth

Operating income, meaning operating revenues and expenses, are those income and cost items that result from normal business operations. Whereas, non-operating income and expenses are those items that don’t result from normal business operations, such as interest expenses or investment gains. A company’s income statement shows the revenues, expenses and profits or losses for an accounting period.

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A multi-step income statement also differs from an income statement in the way that it calculates net income. A single-step income statement includes just one calculation to arrive at net income. Multi-step income statements, on the other hand, use multiple equations to calculate net income. In doing so, they also calculate gross profit and operating income, which aren’t included on a single-step income statement.

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The amount of detail provided in multi-step formats can be a drawback as it’s a time-consuming and more complex way of preparing an income statement compared to using a single-step format. Next, we will subtract cost of goods sold from sales revenues to arrive at gross profit. In contrast to a multi-step income statement, the Dana Incorporated income statement is single-step mainly. The income statement doesn’t show Gross profit, separate and calculate Total Operating expenses, or calculate Total Operating income. An example of a multi step income statement is Arrow Electronics, Inc.’s Consolidated Statements of Operations for the calendar years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019.

Investors will use the gross profit margins to determine how profitable is the business model of the company. Creditors will use the gross profit to judge the general health of the company and whether it is able to pay back its obligations on time and as agreed upon. Net Income is the income earned after other revenues are added and other expenses are subtracted. The income statement for a merchandiser is expanded to include groupings and subheadings necessary to make it easier for investors to read and understand.

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The first section computes the gross profit of the business by subtracting the cost of goods sold from the total sales. This is a key figure for investors, creditors, and internal management because it shows how profitable the company is at selling its goods or making its products. Gross margin is the amount the company earned from selling their merchandise. The thing to be noted is that no other expenditures are included yet. It is simply Cash Inflow from Merchandise sales and Cash Outflow from purchasing the merchandise. This section helps measure the health of business and the profitability of core business activities.

This metric is important for business owners that need more detailed information on both business profitability and financial performance. A multi-step income statement is a financial statement that presents a company’s revenue, expenses, and net income in a more detailed and comprehensive manner than a single-step income statement. The main purpose of preparing a multi-step income statement is to provide insights into a company’s overall financial performance. A very small business like a sole proprietorship is more likely to prepare a single step income statement. Many small businesses and larger companies prepare multi-step income statements.


Here’s an example of a single-step income statement from fictional company XYZ. Here’s an example of a multi-step income statement for fictional company ABC. Make sure the income statement fits your business by adding and removing line items as you go. Add a line where needed, or you can also easily delete lines from the template as required. This calculation is useful for business owners and investors as it shows the net profitability of a business, and how efficient a company is at generating net income.

total sales

purchase journal accountants and financial analysts use other types of multi-step income statements, showing separate sections for fixed and variable costs or direct and indirect costs. This number is a good indicator of whether a company is profitable or not. A single step does not show gross profit, and therefore provides a mere glimpse at how a company earned income. Both a single step and multi step income statement have advantages for reporting. Once you have numbers for total revenues and total expenses, you subtract the expenses from the revenues to come up with net income for the reporting period.